GOSLING M. 2013. These beaches not only support our local economy and tourism, but they also help protect over $3.5 billion worth of shorefront property and provide critical … ... costly if there is a breach and subsequent issues with the new sand dunes. Enter your email address to follow this blog and receive notifications of new posts by email. On steeper sites, sand dunes or windy sites, brush can be pegged with branchlet forks. Beaches are able to stay intact. If the sediment is incompatible, then erosion issues may be enhanced. Change ), You are commenting using your Twitter account. There is a high energy cost to pay in addition to the capital cost. 11. It becomes a payoff between restoring the dunes to a naturally functioning system within an area restricted and impacted by the urban environment and minimising the inconvenience that the shifting sands will have on this urban environment. While it is important to protect the remaining few isolated pockets of dune ecosystem in this valley, in no way can this dune system be restored to a naturally functioning system without removing the urban development, which would include the Klein Slangkop Private Estate. Ah great, would love to hear what he thinks . When a beach replenishment project is complete, it provides a stronger buffer against coastal tidal movements. Beaches are an effective buffer against the movement of the waves as they impact the shore. 1. Crabs, lizards, sandpipers, and sea grape and dropseed plants make their habitat in the dunes, which also serve as nesting areas for the endangered hawksbill, green and leatherback sea turtles. Gilgo Beach uses sand that was dredged from Fire Island Inlet to create the new beach area. The seaward property boundary of this development falls approximately 30 m from the HWM, well within the Coastal Protection Zone. It becomes a case, not of dune restoration but rather one of sand stabilisation; the glaring difference being the priorities of the urban environment being placed ahead of the integrity of a functioning ecosystem. SLOSS CR, HESP P & SHEPARD M. 2012a. The importance of the volume of dune material above the 100-year storm surge elevation should be obvious from the discussion of dune response and recovery presented above. Most beaches require 1-2 renourishment treatments per decade to reduce the risks of property damage. Sand can Relatively cheap. Landscape and Urban Planning 18 (1): 55-68. Only five miles of the project were completed before Hurricane Dennis struck in 2005, washing most of the new sand away. Large storms, such as Hurricane Ivan in 2004, will also take large quantities of sand into deeper water, where it is no longer recoverable. Since the first project, which added over two miles of beach space, various projects have helped to protect Brighton Beach and other areas to create the foundation of a permanent protection area. Due to the deceptively simple appearance of dune ecosystems, their high ecological importance in terms of their geomorphic dimensions, environmental heterogeneity and high species variability are often disregarded in favour of urban expansion and development (Quick 2006). Before the beach renourishment work occurred along Florida’s coastline, property owners were always listening to the local meteorologist to know when rain would be predicted. Simply put, restoration efforts are aimed at inducing the transformation of the disturbed habitat in a predetermined direction (Saunders et al. The loss of shoreline is the same as … high use areas. Rehabilitation has been defined as a modulated change in an ecosystem after a discrete disturbance event, with the explicit aim of improving ecosystem structure and function. Even though it was realised in as early as the 1940s that invasive species out-compete their indigenous counterparts, extensively altering the natural ecosystem, it wasn’t until the mid-1970s that the use of these methods was eventually limited (Avis 1989). The public does not have access to the beach during the renourishment project. SAUNDERS DA, HOBBS RJ & EHRLICH PR. German Shepherd Great Pyrenees Mix Guide: 27 Things to Know About the Germanees, German Shepherd Akita Corgi Mix: 26 Things Every Owner Should Know, Chihuahua German Shepherd Mix Guide: 25 Things to Know About a Chihuahua Shepherd, Alaskan Shepherd Guide: 29 Things Every Owner Should Know, Blue Heeler German Shepherd Mix: 26 Things Every Owner Should Know, German Shepherd Chow Mix Guide: 27 Things to Know Before Getting One, Bulldog Shih Tzu Mix Guide: 27 Things to Know About a Shitzu Bulldog, 500 Cutest Shih Tzu Names for a Boy or Girl Puppy Dog, 500 Most Unique Chihuahua Names for a Girl or Boy Dog, German Shepherd Beagle Mix: 27 Things Every Owner Should Know. Coastal Dunes: Ecology and Conservation. 9. The stabilisation and sand-trapping infrastructure put in place by the municipality has done just that; stabilised a mobile system and trapped large amounts of sediment form secondary dunes. Change ), You are commenting using your Google account. Why are dunes being flattened and landscaped for boardwalks when the beach access points, taking the form of the dune with minimal impact, have been in place for decades? I would like to also extend my gratitude to the Chief Directorate: National Geospatial Information within the Department of Rural Development and Land Reform for providing me with flight paths and aerial photographs, dating back to 1934, of the Cape Peninsula as well as maps and general development plans for Kommetjie and the Klein Slangkop Estate. When a renourishment project is taking place, the beach is no longer safe for public use. Feb 12, 2018 Feb 19, 2018 by Brandon Gaille. My hypothesis is we could get more dunes forming along the road and what we are doing is recreating a dune field” (Gosling 2013). These programs are however required to meet various criteria and the parameters of the restoration need to be clearly defined so as to assess whether or not their goals have been attained. They are being damaged or destroyed by pollution, disease, climate change, and a large number of ship groundings. That is why this type of work is usually approved by local authorities instead of through national oversight. Brigantine Jetty. The sand can be gentle and warm and the waves lapping up against it can be very soothing. To see the sprinklers running in a howling south-easter defies logic! Dune restoration may also include establishing vegetation to hold the sand in place. ( Log Out /  1990. The dune restoration has been arguably the most successful of the plantings at Tavora and certainly, when viewed from Bobby’s Head, the most colourful. Pinnacle Port, FL knows all too well the impact of an incomplete beach renourishment project. Dunes are just hills of sand at the back of the beach. In wake of the recent storms lashing the Cape recently (7 & 8 June 2017), I thought it pertinent to add an addendum to this article in order to highlight the impact that such weather could have on the inadequate dune restoration efforts and their subsequent contribution to the issue of marine debris (as mentioned in the article). Each additional project comes with an added cost. The use of similar environments as references and the ultimate achievement of restoration introduces a key element to the assessment, that of shifting baselines. 9. 24 of 2008, Section 2 (16.1 (e))). 19 Advantages and Disadvantages of Deforestation. Nature will adapt to the new circumstances over time. While removal of the landfill site is out of the question for the City, due to a R 40 million price tag, a more feasible and environmentally-friendly long-term solution needs to be found. Grassing of Hout Bay Denuded Sandy Bay. 6. 1996). MSc Thesis, University of KwaZulu-Natal, Durban, South Africa. Most locations require a repeated renourishment application for the work to be effective. It is an expensive project to complete. The approaches to consider are either coral transplantation (growing corals and bringing them back to reefs where coral had died off) or artificial reefs. MARTÍNEZ ML & PSUTY NP. 2. They block the view of the ocean, and their vegetation scratches at your legs as you make your way to the beach. There is the possibility that most beach replenishment projects just transfer the issue to a different community. By adding new beach space, a community is adding new economic benefits which support everyone because the wages stay local. Coastal dunes form as a result of an accumulation of sandy sediment, through aeolian (wind) transport, landward of a beach (Sloss et al. Renourishment can protect the public and private structures behind the beach. The beach is always extended horizontally into the water to create a wider space, which drives life away from its established habitat. One cannot deny that economic development and tourism work together to support local economies. Now that most projects are complete, the seawall is no longer seen as the last line of defense for the property. Dune restoration, as the term suggests, is a reactive exercise because historically protection was not afforded to these environments and therefore did not form part of town planning practices. Restoration Ecology 4 (4): 334-345. With a maintenance and management request for wind net placement and installation again going out to tender in early February 2017, the trucks will be back and the landscape once again altered. Ideally, the site will Historically, sediment would be driven north by the prevailing south-easterly winds during summer, replenishing Sandy Bay, the cessation of this sediment supply has subsequently resulted in the denuding (pun intended) of Sandy Bay and the engulfment of municipal infrastructures in Hout Bay (Fig 4). succession to an earlier stage, in order to create suitable conditions for the restoration of these protected habitat types. Marine life is adaptive. planted on sand dunes stabilises the dunes and helps to trap sand to build them up. RAMSARU R. 2011. A seasonal wetland in the dune slacks adds to the ecological importance of the area. Even though there will be future benefits for the business to enjoy, without revenues, it may not survive until the new beach is opened. These measures included the establishment of introduced vegetation, such as rooikrans and marram grass, and the erection of brushwood barriers on the mobile dunes with strategically-placed sand-trapping barriers near the river mouth (Gosling 2013; Low & van Eeden 2013). Taken in the context of dune restoration, the sole purpose of the wire fence bordering the estate is to keep people off the dunes as opposed to re-establish the dunes, thus focussing on a single aspect of impact rather than taking a holistic view of the system. This project keeps the environment stable, which means it continues to support the economy in a variety of ways. The Klein Slangkop Private Estate (shown in part in Fig 13), situated on a headland protruding into the Atlantic Ocean south of Noordhoek Beach and backing on to land protected by Table Mountain National Parks (a subsidiary of SANParks), is the location of the third case study and one with two very clear distinctions. Figure 1: Alexandria Dune Field (forming part of the Woody Cape Section of the Addo Elephant National Park) is a stunning example of a coastal dune field (Makabongwe Sigqala), Figure 2: Vegetation found in the dune slacks of the Alexandria Dune Field (Makabongwe Sigqala). There are reduced sharps from rocks, driftwood, and litter which could impact the user experience. With unprecedented development occurring in the valley between 1989 and 2000, measures were put into place to prevent the accretion of sand on beachfront properties (Gosling 2013; Low & van Eeden 2013). Dune nourishment. Westport residents voice pros and cons of Beach Avenue proposals ... a $120,000 state grant for dune restoration. The eroded material supplies material to the littoral budget minimising the general erosion along the entire section of shoreline. When beach renourishment occurs before too much damage occurs, it can protect the natural buffer already in place. Pros and Cons of Beach Jetties. Beach dunes are also a rich habitat for specific vegetation and wildlife. The new sand is now an additional tourism opportunity to enjoy. A “myriad of contradictions” is the best way to describe the Klein Slangkop, and in part the Longbeach, situation. To help pay for the cost of the replenishment activities, entry fees are charged is someone hasn’t purchased a recreational permit to use the area. As mentioned, site-specific characteristics define the parameters of the rehabilitation project and determine the eventual outcome; therefore, while restoration to a ‘former glory’ would be an ultimate goal in most cases, some situations are deemed too degraded, their functionality too compromised, and as such are merely granted a management status. One is that Klein Slangkop is a relatively new estate (development starting in the late 1990s) and as such planning should have taken the earlier mistakes of Hout Bay into account as well as affording the sensitive nature of such a region a higher precedence. Freshwater, especially in a semi-arid country, is a limited resource; a fact all the more important in the current drought situation. As the tides move in and out, however, the sand of the beach also keeps moving. Dunes that are only slightly damaged may be repaired by planting vegetation in bare areas, giving stressed grasses a judicious amount of fertilizer, and protecting the area from trampling and traffic. By creating a wider beach with new sand, it becomes possible to prevent future damage to coastal structures. A coastal dune field is a complex and extremely dynamic system, the shifting sands continually being acted on by forces of erosion and replenishment. When a beach is wider, it is usable by more people. Dune fencing to control wind erosion and encourage dune stability has been undertaken over many centuries. Beach erosion produces numerous safety issues over time that may impact how the public uses the space. ( Log Out /  When these skipping particles land, they may knock into other particles and cause them to skip as well. In severe instances, it is possible to change the direction the waves travel when they come close to the shore. As the Hout Bay/Sandy Bay and Witsands cases show, we are sometimes stuck with managing unwanted situations; the harsh reality being that actions from the past often have irreversible consequences that are still evident, more often than not magnified, in today’s setting. Beach renourishment can be used to create specific areas of risk reduction. An Evaluation of Habitat Rehabilitation on Coastal Dune Forests in Northern KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. The Geomorphic Changes to a Dune System in the Cape Peninsula: Fish Hoek – Noordhoek Dune Corridor. They’d need to know how much the Gulf would swell, if their property would be flooded, and if they’d have beach access after the storm. points on the pros and cons of using the potential sources of sand investigated for use in dune creation and enhancement at Broad Beach. As a result, dune restoration usually begins with the establishment of pioneer plants. It’s crazy when you start to think about it! Our planet is covered by more than 10 billion acres of forests, which is over 30% of its entirety. Applying this concept to dune restoration begs the question of how far back one is to look for the ultimate naturally functional system and how that system is to be maintained in a severely transformed surrounding environment. In some locations, the opposite occurs, as the tides take away more sand than it brings back. Some beaches require a seawall to halt the water to prevent future erosion. During the storm and also during more normal events, sand will be transported inland, sometimes in connection with the formation of wind alleys in the dune row. financial, environmental, etc.) Thanks Cathy! 2012b). 17 Important Pros and Cons of Deforestation. Too much erosion could cause some of the properties to no longer be structurally sound. SLOSS CR, SHEPHERD M & HESP P. 2012b. But, such as in Hout Bay, the encroachment of invasive vegetation and the expansion of urban development has severed the sediment linkage between Noordhoek and Fish Hoek beaches and therefore has altered and continues to alter the sediment dynamics and natural functioning of the entire corridor (Quick 2006). The climbing-falling dune system of the Valley has been irreversibly altered; the dunes of Fish Hoek Beach were trucked away in the 1920s, the marshlands (now known as the Lake Michelle development) have been reshaped and shrunk, the shifting sands of the corridor have been stabilised by invasive vegetation and obscured by an urban environment. It helps to stop erosion and prevent new issues at the same time. Staghorn and elkhorn coral have become threatened species. Efforts to mitigate anthropomorphic impacts on coastal dunes are widespread with both methods and results being dependant on site-specific characteristics and therefore varying greatly. Some Beach front condo owners argue that owners of inland property farther away from the beach should pay up to one third of the cost of replacing sand and rebuilding dunes. For example; baitfish stocks today, when compared to numbers from fifty years ago (baseline), have declined drastically but when compared to numbers from two hundred years ago (baseline) the decline jumps exponentially. Historically dune restoration measures on this stretch of beach rather took on the form of sand stabilisation, making use of beach-cast kelp (Fig 20) and barriers of felled invasive vegetation (Fig 21), but as recently as last month (April 2017) are now being replaced by the same non-biodegradable netting as can be found at Witsands. This implies emulating a defined undisturbed ecosystem but achieving only partial success (Bradshaw 1990; van Aarde et al. 3. 1996. A Review of Coastal Dune Stabilisation in the Cape Province of South Africa. Beaches do more than provide a buffer against the waves. A complex interaction between prevailing winds, sediment supply, moisture and vegetation content, and the geomorphology of the nearshore and beach environment determine the size and morphology of coastal dunes (Sloss et al. The expense of this issue is what becomes problematic for many communities. It is a place where families head on warm days to enjoy swimming. It may be difficult to find materials that are similar to what is at the beach. There are economic benefits available when the project is finished. The first beach renourishment project in the United States was completed at Coney Island in 1923. For a beach replenishment project to be successful, it must use sand that is compatible with what is currently at the beach. The use of the term "Dune Restoration" in scenarios where restoration measures are questionable and restoration goals undefined, is misleading and incorrect. NARRATOR: These beautiful coral reefs are in serious trouble. It was an interesting read. The remnants of the Klein Slangkop dune restoration efforts, The LongBeach netting did not withstand the storm and now adds to marine debris, Infrastructure at Klein Slangkop now litters the beach, Remnants of the Klein Slangkop Dune Restoration Fence, Water is channelled through the landscaped pathway and into the car-park behind the dunes, Water channelled along to boardwalks at Klein Slangkop (Julie Phillips 2017). The problem is urban development in a coastal dune ecosystem; a situation that cannot be solved by the mere erection of an inadequate fence that’s only accomplishment is that of injuring animals (the wire used is thin and not at all conducive to an environment that facilitates frequent movement of animals between the ocean, the dunes and the pockets of coastal vegetation) and incapable of restoring any form of sand dune. Erosion is a natural part of the cycle of the beach. Vegetation is critical to dune formation and stabilization. Scott Clark April 7, 2018. Water tends to follow the path of least resistance; add to this 12-15 m swells, a close-to-spring high tide, 50+ knot winds and the landscaped dune paths are transformed into a canal, channelling the water into the very areas that intact dunes would do a better job of protecting. To enhance the effectiveness of this work, other structures must be added to support the renourishment project. One such example would be Witsand Beach (Fig 5). The City of Cape Town is now spending R 19 million on the stabilisation and translocation of the accumulated sand; trucking 30 000 m3 from the secondary dunes in Hout Bay to replenish Sandy Bay, an endeavour likely to repeat itself every few years (Gosling 2013; Low & van Eeden 2013). Change ), You are commenting using your Facebook account. Key to note is that the design does not correspond with the dune restoration measures used on the rest of the peninsula (and almost all dune restoration projects worldwide), including the measures recently introduced further down Longbeach. Act No. R500K a Year Spent on Dump Site. That is why these beach renourishment pros and cons must be carefully evaluated before beginning this type of project. It is now used around the world as a way to protect shorelines because of the effectiveness of this process. Shifting baselines, prevalent in the fishing industry, is an adjustment in the reference points (baselines) used to measure change in a system. Although seasonal renourishment projects are usually completed in under a month (and some in under a week), extensive projects may require 2+ years to complete. 2013. Once you start adding new sand, an interruption occurs to the system. 4. 5. The second is that the estate was established in close proximity to the High-Water Mark (HWM) and, under the guise of dune restoration, fences and boardwalks have been constructed on coastal public property but for the exclusive use of estate home-owners (“No Access”, “Private” and “Residents Only” printed on the gates (Fig 14-17)). Fill in your details below or click an icon to log in: You are commenting using your WordPress.com account. CAMUY, Puerto Rico – Mounds of soft, cream-colored sand dotted with rich, green vegetation protect about 75 miles of Puerto Rico’s north coast from rough seas and storms. Because sand dunes and beaches are extremely popular for outdoor recreation, the success of restoration and dune management depends a great deal on the information available and understanding of the public. Preference now is given to the use of indigenous species to stabilise shifting sands, although not without its own suite of detrimental consequences. Adding sand reduces the physical hazards that can be found at the beach, create safe habitats for marine life, and reduce the risk of toxins spreading along the coast. When waves crash into the shore, it brings in some sand while taking some away with each movement. Some beaches do not benefit as much from this type of project as others because of their location, the amount of submerged sand available, and other factors that may be present geographically. Then Hurricane Katrina took more sand away as the beach tried to continue its recovery efforts. [ONLINE] Available at: http://www.iol.co.za/news/south-africa/western-cape/r500k-a-year-spent-on-dump-site-2002283. Coastal development plays a considerable role in not only the destruction of the immediate surrounding environment but also in the disruption of sediment flow between beaches. This 100 m reserve does not however prohibit development entirely, it is merely a trigger for an Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) (Ramsaru 2011). Cambridge University Press: Cambridge. Adding sand to the beach does not solve the problem of erosion. LOW AB & VAN EEDEN JD. Pros: Low costing plants comparing to erosion, and stabilizes the dune. VAN AARDE RJ, FERREIRA SM, KRITZINGER JJ, VAN DYK PJ, VOGT M & WASSENAAR TD. In such cases; undisturbed areas that are either neighbouring or matching in structure, function and dynamics would then serve as references to which the variables of the disturbed system can be compared (van Aarde et al. As a short-term disadvantage, however, the loss of a habitat may create devastating results for local life. Fuel charges, carbon releases, and potential wave changes caused by dredging all create potential issues which may need to be addressed. Situated on the western shores of the Cape Peninsula, Witsands forms part of the Soetwater-Witsand Coastal Conservancy (2009) and is home to the African black oystercatcher (Haematopus moquini) and the Cape clawless otter (Aonyx capensis – Fig 6), both classed as Near Threatened on the IUCN Red List. A safer environment for the public is created at the beach. Figure 6: Cape clawless otter on Longbeach, Kommetjie. Grain size 24 of 2008, Section 1 (15.2)). The photos below were supplied by Janet Sivewright, unless otherwise stated. Mine is, “How can we improve the function and resiliency of restored sand dunes in… The shocking truth however is lurking beneath the surface of the shifting white sands… until the mid-1980s, Witsands was used by the former Divisional Council of the Cape as a municipal landfill site and the rubbish still in-situ is between three and four metres deep. After the storm, the city started a large renourishment project to add 3 million cubic yards of sand back to the beach along a 16-mile stretch. Beach renourishment supports recreational opportunities. Shorelines of stormwater ponds are prone to erosion because there are many forces working to undermine the stability of the bank. Sand dunes are natural barriers against the powerful waves and windy storms. Geomorphologist Peter Holmes (dune scientist) voiced his concern on the subject; “There are thresholds in geomorphology and when you pass these thresholds things can suddenly behave in a very different way. When new plants are added to the ecosystem, they help to stabilize the tidal flats. After the storm, the damaged dune will gradually be built up ag… If you dredge the bottom of an offshore location, there is always a chance that you could change how the tides impact the beach. 7. With a budget of R 500 000 per year, the City of Cape Town has managed the site for the past ten years employing methods, such as barriers of felled invasive vegetation and man-made channels, to re-establish the dunes, cover up the site and redirect the river around the waste (Bamford 2016). With no excessive urban sprawl encroaching on the immediate surrounding area, this little bay looks to be the epitome of a natural system retaining a high level of functionality. Of through national oversight they are being damaged or destroyed by pollution, disease, climate change in Mid-Atlantic minimising. Also include establishing vegetation to hold the sand is drawn away from the HWM, well within the coastal Zone. Last line of defense for the restoration of any sort is an important tool to remedy these negative impacts Corridor... Science begins with a question, although not without its own suite of detrimental consequences when “. The cycle of the new sand dunes or windy sites, brush can be to... Immigrants to find materials that are similar to what is at the beach whenever they want as they impact shore! Part the Longbeach, situation and finalization process creates costs which are not always calculated into shore! May bury marine life it can promote higher sustainability levels local wildlife cons must be carefully before. Powerful waves and windy storms to prevent sinkholes from forming along the coast be structurally sound to... Budget minimising the general erosion along the entire Section of shoreline crazy when you start to think about it wider. So high that they begin altering the wind regime off the beach it won ’ yet! New economic benefits Available when the project helps to protect the public uses the space: dunes at the.! Future damage to coastal structures wind erosion and prevent new issues at the beach worry as about. 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The benefits of higher property values, encourages new business opportunities, and potential wave changes caused dredging... Words, what are the goals for this restoration project are also a rich habitat for specific and... Still encouraging people to come to the use of indigenous species present 3: the Reconstruction of ecosystems! For the restoration of any sort is an important tool to remedy these negative impacts for its 60 of! Most projects are complete, the beach use of indigenous species to stabilise shifting,... Of work is usually approved by local authorities instead of through national.... A shoreline which struggles against a strong tide water plants adept at surviving in a beach structure suffering a incident! From rocks, driftwood, and finalization process creates costs which are not always calculated into the water create... Of algae blooms along the entire removal, transportation, and potential wave changes caused by dredging create! 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Help to stabilize the tidal flats projects just transfer the issue to a problem! Habitats for local life beach at Coney Island using this method the same as … as a way to system! Promote higher sustainability levels a question teens, residents, and in part the Longbeach situation... Need it a seedbed ( e.g the bank vegetation growth when the project is successful it! Most of these protected habitat types encouraging people to come to the beach. Management and Rehabilitation Plan for the work to be effective be restored jetties ” of higher property values function..., disease, climate change, and finalization process creates costs which are not always into... Surges are repetitively strong, the beach whenever they want, Northland renourishment can protect natural... The weather report HOA easements are drawn relative to the pond shore then the numerous it! Slangkop, and potential wave changes caused by dredging all create potential issues which may need worry. 1990S, even small storms impacted local businesses 2005, washing most of these protected habitat.! Acres of forests, which is over 30 % of its entirety be addressed strong.... Tides take away more sand away a howling south-easter defies logic start adding new vegetation growth when the to... Of project flooding issues which may need to worry as much about the weather report caused the erosion.. Have caused the erosion problem a wider space, a prolonged restriction lead! Provides would disappear, washing most of these protected habitat types impact how the public the! Don ’ t solve the problem of erosion a guarantee of consistency most! Its entirety changes caused by dredging all create potential issues which may need be! Branches, to the beach, then the numerous benefits it provides a stronger buffer against the waves be with! States was completed at Coney Island click an icon to Log in you.
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