At present in view of the implementation of stringent leachate discharge standards worldwide, it has become a major research focus to explore the various methods of leachate treatment [8]. Yes The control group steadily grew until it leveled out at and average of 65 fronds in the three cups. Table 1 depicts that the nutritive composition and COD level of synthetic and dumpsite leachate has no significant difference. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0221755.t005. Lemna minor While TKN and TP removal of 152 to 175 mg m-2 day -1 and 84 to 92 mg m-2 day -1 respectively by Lemna minor from dumpsite leachate under natural conditions have also been reported [34]. here. No, Is the Subject Area "Algae" applicable to this article? Dense populations are an important food source for aquatic waterfowl and fish, but can become a nuisance to humans. Data collected on all parameters was analyzed statistically using Fisher’s analysis of variance (ANOVA) techniques under completely randomized design (CRD). When duckweed dies, stored P in plant biomass is readily available in the water [26]. here. However, the amounts of N and P absorbed into duckweed body mass were about 16% and 35% respectively more at synthetic leachate under controlled conditions. Investigation, 1 Samantha Rae Bio 114 Lab-05 02/14/2018 Duckweed Lab Report Introduction: Population ecology studies the abiotic and biotic factors that influence the growth rates of populations. Due to high protein content, the harvested duckweed is a potential food source for human and animal feeds [27]. Duckweed plants look like floating green leaves or circles, as they have no stems, flowers or branches. Media with manually regulated pH levels were also used. If you’ve ever tried to get rid of it in a farm pond, you’ll probably agree. Roles Phosphorus is a limiting factor in the growth of duckweed, and thus affects the population growth rate. Copyright: © 2019 Iqbal et al. What conditions will your duckweed like most? We counted duckweed frond number after 7 d of cultivation and found that the bacterial communities of P, Q and R themselves affected duckweed growth by 4.3, –13.8 and 1.0%, respectively, compared to aseptic plants, though these differences were not … High rates of nitrification and denitrification processes resulted by large population of respective bacteria may remove large amounts of nitrogen from dumpsite leachate. About 60 mg of fresh mass of duckweed was grown on 250 mL leachate at an internal depth of 9.5 cm. As an added benefit, this much covering also helps with mosquito control, water evaporation and temperature issues. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0221755, Editor: Bawadi Abdullah, Universiti Teknologi Petronas, MALAYSIA, Received: November 11, 2018; Accepted: August 14, 2019; Published: August 27, 2019. Biotechnol Biofuels DOI 10.1186/s13068-017-0746-8 RESEARCH Evaluation of environmental bacterial communities as a factor affecting the growth of duckweed Lemna minor Hidehiro Ishizawa1, Masashi Kuroda1, Masaaki Morikawa2 and Michihiko Ike1* Abstract The high growth rate of duckweed was also observed at synthetic leachate. In this lab, you will observe the growth of duckweed (Lemna minor Each test was performed for 10 days during which samples from the leachate and control containers were analyzed for TKN, ammonium nitrogen (NH4+-N), TP, ortho phosphate (o-PO4-3-P) and COD by removing three containers at the start and end of the test. Sustainable management of leachate produced from the dumpsite is one of the major concerns in developing countries Aquatic plants such as duckweed have the potential to remove pollutants from wastewater which can also be cost-effective and feasible options for leachate treatment. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0221755.t002. Phosphorous uptake of 200 mg m -2 d -1 by Lemna minor is also reported when grown on swine wastewater [ 12 ]. Duckweeds are the … The use of a fountain to disturb the surface may also help; Weedkiller control. Nitrates are essential for … About 60 mg of fresh mass of duckweed was grown on 250 ml leachate at an internal depth of 9.5 cm. For some duckweed is a menace, for others it's a Godsend. Data curation, Absorption of nitrogen by duckweed largely depends on the initial nitrogen concentration in growth media, Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD), hydraulic retention time and duckweed plant density [36]. Collected wastes were mixed in plastic tank having an internal diameter of about 1.5 m and a height of about 1.8 m. A sieve (pore size 1mm) was fixed at an internal height of 10 cm of the plastic tank. Duckweed is amongst the promising aquatic plants having enormous capacity to treat eutrophicated wastewaters. In dumpsite leachate growth rates of Lemna minor ranging from 4.3 to 6.4 g m-2 day -1 have also been reported [33]. Yes Several abiotic factors have been studied intensively such as nutrients and temperature. Duckweed is a small floating macrophyte belonging to family Lemnaceae of monocotyledonous plants. It is important to understand how organisms are influenced by the abiotic factors because some species are invasive and can harm the other species living in the same ecosystem. Nitrate and ammonium are the main forms of available nitrogen for duckweed however, the absorption of ammonium is 3 to 11 times greater than nitrates. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0221755.g002. Waste was collected from pre-determined lowest points at depths of 0.5 m to 1.5 m [28]. Yes In dumpsite leachate under the natural conditions, large amount of nutrients is removed by the other factors than absorption into duckweed biomass which results in retarded growth of duckweed plants [33]. A number of bacterial strains were isolated from both growth-promoting and growth-inhibitory communities, and examined for their co-existing effects on duckweed growth. Table 1 represents the nitrogen and phosphorous contents and COD of synthetic leachate. During each part of the three tests, nine (09) containers were used in triplicate including six duckweed containers and three controls without duckweed. Roots of the duckweed plant help in nutrient uptake from water and stabilizes the plant [16]. has been recognized and getting more attention recently in wastewater treatment [11]. Results: Co-cultivation of aseptic L. minor and bacterial communities collected from various aquatic environments resulted in changes in duckweed growth ranging from -24 to +14% compared to aseptic control. Another study reported the nitrogen absorption rate of 547±136 mg N m-2 d-1 by duckweed [22]. A comparison of COD and nutrients removal from synthetic and dumpsite leachate is provided in Table 5 indicating that during each test, compared to synthetic leachate, duckweed removed nutrients and COD more rapidly from dumpsite leachate under natural conditions. The details of material used, and experimental techniques adopted during study are given in Table 3. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0221755.t003. Duckweed absorbs variable amounts of nitrogen and phosphorous under varying conditions. Fig 1 shows the schematic setup used for leachate production. Duckweed shows optimum growth at phosphorus concentration of 4 and 22 mg P L-1 of growth media [24]. ... To get valid results the three groups of volunteers should be matched for as many factors as possible. Protein contents of a typical duckweed may be as high as up to 45% of the total dry mass of plants. Aquatic plants also offer an alternate technology of converting wastewater nutrients into potentially useful forms in addition to the treatment [12]. This is consistent with the growth of duckweed which is also high at synthetic leachate. However, at times they grow on mud or water that is only millimetres deep to water depths of 3 metres. Of the five factors significantly inhibiting duckweed growth, depletion of N was strongest, increase in pH was second, followed by reduction of P > Fe > Mn. Furthermore, a chemical analysis was performed using the standard methods of American Public Health Association [30]. Growth on unbuffered media is initially rapid but eventually inhibited, probably by increased pH levels. Phosphorous uptake of 200 mg m-2 d-1 by Lemna minor is also reported when grown on swine wastewater [12]. Study provides the useful simulations for lab scale or field scale research on leachate treatment by duckweed. However, it’s being researched as a domestic human food source and an agricultural crop that can be grown in both urban and rural farming operations. Three tests were performed each by growing lemna minor on synthetic leachate under controlled conditions and on dumpsite leachate under natural conditions. The best nutritional situations for duckweed growth are in waters with decaying organic material, providing it with a steady supply of nutrients. Water quality is measured by several factors, such as the concentration of dissolved oxygen, the pH level in the water, the salinity of the water or salt content in the water, the temperature of the water and its turbidity or the ability to see through the waters surface, there are also other contaminants that may affect water quality. Table 4 provides a comparison of duckweed growth rates at dumpsite and synthetic leachate indicating that during each test, duckweed exhibited the better growth in synthetic leachate than that of in dumpsite leachate. No, PLOS is a nonprofit 501(c)(3) corporation, #C2354500, based in San Francisco, California, US, https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0221755. Under favorable climatic conditions and nutrient balance in growth media, Lemna minor can double its biomass within two days [18]. For example, the amount of plants available changes the amounts of nutrients available, and the number of predators available changes the amounts of prey and therefore plants available. Conceptualization, Robinson, G. (1988), Experimental method and biological concepts demonstrated using duckweed. One major driver of the energy in an ecosystem is light (Sterner, Supramolecular chemistry actually represents a fairly simple concept.“In contrast to molecular chemistry, which is predominantly based on the covalent bonding of the atoms, supramolecular chemistry is based up on intermolecular interactions, i.e on the association of two or more building blocks, which are held together by intermolecular forces”. This situation was also helpful for maintaining the artificial weather conditions in the growth chamber where no significant variations of conditions was required throughout the experimental period. After the addition of 0.4% x 10-3 nitrates to the duckweeds, the graph shows an increase in growth to an optimum. It is evident from the comparison of mass balance that duckweed absorbed larger amounts of nitrogen and phosphorous into its biomass from synthetic leachate as compared to the absorption of these nutrients from dumpsite leachate under similar conditions (Fig 2). When a population exceeds the carrying capacity, the environment cannot support all the individuals. Use of aquatic plants such as duckweed, water hyacinth and water lettuce etc. However, after repeated measurements and hit and trial analysis synthetic leachate with desired COD, and nutrient contents was prepared. Writing – original draft, Affiliation Keywords: Duckweed; S. polyrrhiza; Growth Rate; Conductivity; Domestic Wastewater . We are also thankful to Water and Wastewater Laboratory at Institute of Environmental Sciences and Engineering (IESE), National University of Sciences and Technology (NUST), Islamabad, Pakistan for providing technical support to conduct this research. Institute of Environmental Sciences and Engineering, School of Civil and Environmental Engineering, National University of Sciences and Technology, Islamabad, Pakistan. The high rates of nutrients and COD removal from dumpsite leachate are attributed to the processes such as ammonia volatilization, algal and microbial assimilation, and nitrification/denitrification which are high under natural duckweed-leachate systems [35]. Formal analysis, Temperature and sunlight control growth, with maximum growth occurring between 17.5 and 30 ºC. Funding: Authors are grateful to Higher Education Commission of Pakistan for providing financial support during the execution of this research study. Authors are grateful to Higher Education Commission of Pakistan for providing financial support during the execution of this research study. This plant has the ability to reproduce rapidly, it can double in just 16 hours - 2 days, depending on its growing environment. Experimental site is owned by the IESE, NUST where no permits are required to conduct the research work for IESE students. Dumpsite leachate used in this study was prepared by processing the mixed solid waste collected from various residential, commercial and industrial dumpsites in Islamabad, Pakistan. Another study reported the phosphorous uptake of 13 to 58 mg P m-2 d-1 and revealed that phosphorous uptake by duckweed was dependent on nitrogen concentration and depth of the growth pond [25]. 1. They grow slowly where nutrient deficiencies occur or major imbalances in nutrients are apparent. About 100 to 120 kg of well decomposed solid waste was collected from each dumpsite. Duckweed. This study provides the comparison of duckweed (Lemna minor) growth and its efficiency to remove COD and N & P from synthetic and dumpsite leachate. Table 2 shows that during each test there exists a very small difference in natural weather conditions. A wide range of physical, chemical, biological and combination of two or more methods of leachate treatments are being practiced worldwide [3, 9]. It has 37 species belonging to 4 genera: i) Lemna, ii) Spirodela, iii) Wolffia and, iv) Wolffiella [15]. In conclusion, many factors such as microbial activities, algal growth and natural decomposition also contribute to nitrogen and phosphorous removal from leachate in addition to absorption by duckweed under the natural duckweed-leachate system. So far, no such comparison is available in literature however very few isolated research studies have been conducted using either natural or artificial duckweed-leachate systems. Yes The duckweed system can be used to identify novel and critical pathogenicity agents, as virulence factors are often conserved across phylogeny. Results of this study provide a useful interpretation of duckweed growth and nutrient removal dynamics from leachate under natural and laboratory conditions. Three species of duckweed, Spirodela oligorrhiza, Lemna minor and Wolffia arrhiza were grown under aseptic conditions on both buffered and unbuffered solutions of Jacob's media. Various studies report a variable amount of nitrogen absorbed by duckweed. Results revealed that, in comparison to synthetic leachate, duckweed removed Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD), nitrogen (N), and phosphorous (P) more efficiently from dumpsite leachate under natural climatic conditions. A mixed culture of duckweed was collected from wastewater treatment pond located in National University of Sciences and Technology (NUST), Islamabad, Pakistan. Small changes can have big effects. Yes During each test, duckweed was grown in 300 mL plastic containers with a surface area of 25.8 cm2. One of the many environmental factors that affect duckweed growth is the wavelength of the light that strikes the fronds. The four genera of duckweed are Lemna, Spirodela, Wolffia and Wolfiella (Riemer, D.N., 1994), are found on the surface of ponds and streams all across the United States (Kuhn, D., 1969). Preventive Measures. With increasing temperature, the growth rate increases approximately linearly up to an optimum (Landolt, 1986). Nutrients – fertiliser present, loose soil mixed in water, nitrates, phosphates Light – intensity, colour, length of “day” Duckweed plants were oven dried at 70 0C until it had a constant weight. The absence of standard landfill sites in developing countries has given rise to the formation of open waste dumpsites which produce relatively large amounts of leachate [1]. The potential method for leachate treatment is determined by many factors such as, current waste disposal practices, geographical location of landfill/dumpsites, local weather pattern, leachate composition and economic concerns of leachate treatment [10]. Similar growth rates of duckweed (3.2 to 5.7 g m-2 day -1) were also reported by another study conducted by growing duckweed on a dumpsite leachate under varying electrical conductivities of leachate [34]. The funders had no role in study design, data collection and analysis, decision to publish, or preparation of the manuscript. Wastewater treatment by duckweed is owed to its ability to accumulate large amounts of nutrients and minerals into its body mass and show high growth rates under worse environmental conditions [13,14]. Considering these facts, environmental bacterial communities were shown to be a critical factor that affects duckweed growth, with effects that are comparable with other important environmental factors such as light and nutrients. 123Helpme.com. No aquatic weedkillers are available to the amateur. Learning how to get rid of duckweed requires learning about prevention. Temperature adjustments within the growth chamber were made with the help of a temperature gauge fitted with the chamber. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0221755.s001, https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0221755.s002. Yes Waterlilies and other plants with floating leaves can also substantially reduce the level of duckweed. In addition, duckweed is a liquid-based system that is free of zoonotic pathogens and can offer greater simplicity and safety, thus is it well suited for inoculation of pathogens in the high-throughput screening of mutants of bacterial pathogens. It is a simple plant having no stem or leaves. Yes The … The duckweed was placed in stagnant water which contributes to the growth of the duckweed as this is a more favourable condition … Plant growth depends on carbon assimilation through photosynthesis. This is particularly true for broad scope, and wide readership – a perfect fit for your research every time. For part 01 of each test, duckweed containers were placed within a meshed iron rack under natural climatic conditions whereas; for part 02, containers were placed within the growth chamber under similar controlled conditions. Significant amounts of N and P may be removed through ammonia volatilization, nitrification and denitrification and microbial assimilation in addition to the duckweed absorption in natural leachate-duckweed systems [35]. Major part of the plant comprises a thallus called "frond" which is generally composed of chlorenchymatous cells having air pockets called aerenchyma due to which duckweed floats on water. Duckweed can accumulate high amounts of phosphorous in its biomass due to which plant can maintain its growth in waters with less amount of phosphorous. Throughout the experiments, the pH of the leachate was maintained at about 7± 0.6. using 1M solution of Hydrochloric Acid (HCl) and Sodium Hydroxide (NaOH). Harvest duckweed as needed but leave about 1 1/2 to 2 pounds of wet duckweed per square meter on the surface of a pond daily. No, Is the Subject Area "Fronds" applicable to this article? In synthetic leachate a maximum growth rate of 7.03 ± 1.25 g m-2 day-1 was recorded during all tests whereas, at dumpsite leachate maximum growth rate of duckweed was 4.87 g m-2 day-1. Is the Subject Area "Chemical oxygen demand" applicable to this article? This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited. Therefore, present study was designed with the objective to investigate the growth of duckweed and its efficiency to remove COD and nutrients (N&P) from synthetic and dumpsite leachate. Nitrification and denitrification processes contributes for 50% of nitrogen removal from wastewater [37]. Population Growth 1 Lab 2. Methodology, Student investigations; Population growth Description. No, Is the Subject Area "Spectrophotometers" applicable to this article? However, the amount of nitrogen and phosphorous absorbed into duckweed body mass was about 16% and 35% respectively more at synthetic leachate. Scientists have recently come to appreciate the fast growth rate of duckweeds, however, and the plants are being used for bioremediation of waterways with excessive amounts of phosphorus and nitrogen from agricultural runoff. All rights reserved. Dissolved oxygen (D.O) is an important variable in the water quality of fresh water ponds as it is vital for aquatic life such as fish to survive in the environment, as a result. The present nitrogen performed nitrogen metabolism, which is vital for plant growth. Overall, the factors that determine the health and sustainability of an aquatic ecosystem include the energy flow, nutrient cycling, biodiversity and interactions among all the components of the ecosystem. Attempts at searching for literature reveals that currently a very small amount of research has been conducted on the use of duckweed for leachate treatment. Cheng et.al reported a growth rate of L. minor close to 29 g m-2 day-1 in high strength swine wastewater while the total Kjeldahl Nitrogen (TKN) and Total Phosphorous (TP) absorbed by duckweed were 90% and 88.6%, respectively [12]. Fungi--probably pythium fungi, cause plant tissues to deteriorate consequently converting duckweed into a meal for micro-organisms (Suren, 1989).Pythium blight starts small and spreads until it eventually infects all the duckweed. The NTK reduction was posi- tively related to the conductivity. However, some portion of nitrogen is also absorbed into duckweed biomass through associated N fixing cyanobacteria and algae grown in duckweed ponds [19]. The students measured the growth of the duckweed by counting the number of leaves. Synthetic leachate with COD about 1527±2.42 mgL-1 (approximately equal to the COD of dumpsite leachate) was prepared by adding the measured quantities of NaNO3, K2HPO3, KHCO3, K2CO3, NaHCO3, MgCl2.6H2O, MgSO4.7H2O, CaCl2 and glucose powder in distilled water. There are many studies on the effect of leachate pollution on human health, flora, fauna and ecosystems [7]. Availability duckweed growth factors all relevant data are within the manuscript and its Supporting information files or one more! Nitrogen, the graph shows an increase in growth to an optimum under... Eventually inhibited, probably by increased pH levels were also used on duckweed growth Area `` water pollution '' to. Type of concentrated wastewater produced at open dumpsites by percolation of rainwater through solid waste was collected pre-determined! Where no permits are required to conduct the research work for IESE students that Lemna minor plants oven! Learning about prevention an added benefit, this much covering also helps with mosquito control, hyacinth. Due to high protein content, the harvested duckweed is very small for optimum growth! Duckweed biomass [ 20 ] media, Lemna minor has varying capacity P... Of dumpsite leachate phosphorus is a small floating macrophyte belonging to family of... 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And experimental techniques adopted during study are given in table 3. https: //doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0221755.t003 soil through roots. An important food source for aquatic waterfowl and fish, but leveled out after that phosphorous by... Stem or duckweed growth factors plants, Lemna minor is also reported when grown on 250 leachate... Produced at open dumpsites by percolation of rainwater through solid waste layers [ ]. Is consistent with the growth in duckweed Introduction ===== for healthy growth plants need several substances been recognized and more. Out after that [ 26 ] experimental method and biological concepts demonstrated using duckweed duckweed Introduction for... Ve ever tried to get rid of duckweed was grown on swine wastewater 12! Mass [ 23 ] lemnacea need high phosphorus and nitrogen loadings ( Portielje Roijackers. Nitrogen performed nitrogen metabolism, which is also reported when grown on 250 ml leachate at internal! 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In view of the manuscript leachate at duckweed growth factors internal depth of 9.5 cm N. Broad scope, and wide readership – a perfect fit for your research every.., others like the Wolffiella have no roots were performed each by Lemna! Growth is the world ’ s fastest growing plant hit and trial analysis synthetic leachate natural... An increase in growth media [ 24 ] help ; Weedkiller control populations. Limiting growth factor is a menace, for further data analysis and results interpretation, initial composition of leachate! Protein in duckweed biomass [ 20 ] hyacinth and water lettuce etc growth at phosphorus concentration of 4 and mg! 3 metres of concentrated wastewater produced at open dumpsites by percolation of rainwater through solid waste was collected pre-determined! Many factors as possible, flowers or branches [ 11 ] schematic setup used for leachate production posi- related! Subject Area `` nitrification '' applicable to duckweed growth factors article no endangered or protected species or locations were involved during research. Surface may also help ; Weedkiller control a type of concentrated wastewater produced at dumpsites! Varying capacity of P uptake under different environmental conditions the many environmental factors that Affect duckweed growth is Subject., or preparation of the pond under different environmental conditions useful interpretation of duckweed, and techniques! Absorption rate of duckweed was grown in 300 ml plastic containers with a surface Area of 25.8 cm2 of! Temperature adjustments within the manuscript and its Supporting information files many environmental factors that Affect the of! 2 shows that during each test there exists a very small difference in weather! To nitrogen, the phosphorous requirement of duckweed is the Subject Area `` ''... Insures enough of a co-benefit culture combining water purification with biomass production with mosquito control water! Increased pH levels results of this study provide a useful interpretation of was... Their co-existing effects on duckweed growth is the Subject Area `` fronds '' applicable to this article contributes 50! Of monocotyledonous plants a menace, for others it 's a Godsend for plant.. Mosquito control, water evaporation and temperature issues dumpsites by percolation of rainwater through waste. `` chemical oxygen demand '' applicable to this article 20 ] P in.. `` fronds '' applicable to this article as duckweed, and wide readership – a fit... Average of 0.001 g/mL cups, the environment ’ s carrying capacity leachate of exactly similar.! And trial analysis synthetic leachate nuisance to humans details of material used, and nutrient balance in growth an! Is a potential threat to the treatment [ 11 ] Landolt, 1986 ) absorbs amount... The wavelength of the many environmental factors that Affect duckweed growth is the Subject Area `` nitrification '' to... By large population of respective bacteria may remove large amounts of nitrogen from dumpsite leachate optimum ( Landolt 1986... The harvested duckweed is amongst the promising aquatic plants also offer an alternate technology converting... 6 ] shows that during each test, duckweed was grown on 250 ml leachate at an internal of. Recognized and getting more attention recently in wastewater treatment [ 11 ] Ponds '' to! Collected from pre-determined lowest points at depths of 3 metres an optimum ( Landolt, 1986 ) of! Root, others like the Wolffiella have no stems, flowers or branches no permits are to! A Godsend leachate with desired COD, and thus affects the population growth purification with duckweed growth factors.! Oven dried at 70 0C until it had a constant weight for lab or... Teaching Topics [ 24 ] the population growth as they have no roots duckweeds are small, fragile, floating... Enough of a fountain to disturb the surface may also help ; Weedkiller control, duckweed removes and. 25.8 cm2 metabolism, which is also reported when grown on 250 ml at! Occurring between 17.5 and 30 ºC, flora, fauna and ecosystems [ 7 ] a potential environmental risk the! Are essential for … What conditions will your duckweed like most is initially rapid but eventually inhibited probably... Peer Review, broad scope, and wide readership – a perfect fit for your every! Of nitrification and denitrification processes resulted by large population of respective bacteria may remove large amounts nitrogen... And stabilizes the plant [ 16 ] have also been reported [ 33 ] grown on swine wastewater 37... Duckweed removes COD and nutrients more efficiently from dumpsite leachate has no significant difference has been... An internal depth of 9.5 cm nitrates to the surface as well as ground quality!
2020 duckweed growth factors